Hibiscus rosa-sinesis Linn. (Malvaceae) is a perennial ornamental shrub widely cultivated in the tropics. Hibiscus rosa sinensis L is native to china and is also seen in India and Philippines and it is a national flower of Malaysia. This hibiscus having several forms and varying colors of flowers.
Various extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis exposed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, fatty materials, resin, reducing sugars, sterols and the lack of tannins and Saponins. Isolation of taraxeryl acetate, β-sitosterol, and four uncharacterized compounds which included an alkaloid and three sterols has been reported in the leaves. The leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were also studied for their fatty acids fatty alcohol, and hydrocarbon content. Two cyclic acids viz., malvalic and sterculic are also identified. Flowers contain flavonoids, vitamins, ascorbic acid, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin and cyaniding diglucoside. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside-5-glycosides, 3, 7- diglucoside, cyanidin-3, Quercetin-3-diglucoside, 5-diglucoside have been isolated from deep yellow flowers.
TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL USE
The leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are reported to be promoters of hair growth and aid in healing of ulcers. In several articles and ancient literature have reported that the flowers of this plant possess antifertility activity, like, abortifacient, antiimplantation in rodents. Flowers have been used as medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension and to have important antifertility effect. Moreover, in India various parts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have used for hair growth. In traditional medicine, the leaves of this hibiscus are used in fatigue and skin disease. Fresh root juice of the plant is given for gonorrhea and powder root for menorrhagia and Flowers are used in leprosy, bronchial catarrh, epilepsy and diabetes. An infusion of the petal of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is broadly used in Ayurvedic medicine in India as a demulcent refrigerant drink in fever and decoction is given in bronchial catarrh.
Whole part of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is very useful to curing various diseases. Some of scientifically proved properties are listed below.
- Antifertility Activity
Some research scientifically proved the antifertility activity of flower of hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Benzene extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis exhibited antifertility effect in rats. The ethanol extract indicated an effect on sex ratio in favour of male pups at birth. Flowers collected in winter season exhibited maximum post-coital antifertility activity. Over 100 million women worldwide depend hormonal contraceptives for antifertility but that will be make lots of health problems. In this situation hibiscus is getting more important with antifertility activity. In India traditionally hibiscus is used as contraceptive and abortifacient. Various ancient Ayurvedic and Unani text carry references of antifertility activity of hibiscus.
- Abortifacient Activity
In case of medical abortion techniques and practice of pills for, it has more disadvantages and side effects, normally medical abortion is more complicate and the drug side effects are nausea, high bleeding, fever, headache, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, hot flashes, and abdominal cramping and pain. In these reasons most of the people prefer herbal abortifacient. Water insoluble and ether soluble fractions of a total benzene extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis, administered by gastric intubation to rats at a dose of 186.0 mg / kg were active. Ether soluble and water insoluble fractions of a total benzene extract, at a dose of 73.0 mg /kg, were active. In this point of view further studies are more need for the development of herbal abortifacient from the hibiscus.
- Analgesic Activity
Medicines which are used currently for the controlling of pain and inflammatory conditions are either steroidal like corticosteroids or non-steroidal like aspirin. All of these drugs possess more or less side and toxic effects like allergic reactions, renal failure, hearing loss or they may increase the risk of haemorrhage by affecting platelet function. Ethanol extract of dried leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis , administered orally to mice at a dose of 125.0 mg /kg, was active vs inhibition of aconitine-induced writhing. Hibiscus is a potential source of natural analgesic agent.
- Anticonvulsive Activity
The ethanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis protected animals from maximum electro-shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice. D-amphetamine were antagonized and pentobarbitone induced sleep was potentiated. The brain content of gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin were raised and the extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of the central nervous system.
- Antiestrogenic Activity
Studies with the total benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers exposed antiestrogenic activity in bilaterally ovariectomized immature albino rats. Flower extract disrupts the estrous cycle in rats, depending on the dose and duration of treatment. The extract led to a reduction in the weights of the ovary pituitary and uterus. Ovaries showed follicular atresia and uterine atrophic changes. These effects could be reversed 30 days after withdrawal of the plant extract. In guinea pigs, the benzene and ethanolic extract of the flowers produced an increase in the ovarian weight, as well as in the weight and diameter of the corpora lutea, indicating an anti-estrogenic activity.
- Anti-inflammatory Activity
Hibiscus rosa- sinensis L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain and various inflammatory conditions such as the blenorrhoea, inflammation of oral mucosa and asthmatic bronchitis. Ethanol extract of dried leaves of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 100.0 mg / kg, was active vs carragenin-induced pedal edema. This great flowering plant has been found to be effective in anti-inflammatory activity and hence is highly beneficial for people suffering from inflammation problems.
- Antipyretic Activity
Researchers are searching the natural antipyretic remedy in all over the world as an alternative of antipyretics drugs because these drugs are having lots of side effects such as dependence, gastric lesion, tolerance and toxicity. Ethanol extract of dried leaves, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 100.0 mg / kg, was active vs brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia25.Ethanol / Water [1:1] extract of the aerial parts, administered intra peritoneally to mice at a dose of 500.0 mg /kg, was active. The results of Hibiscus rosa sinensis showed the significant antipyretic activity.
- Antiovulatory Activity
Benzene extract of the flowers, administered intraperitoneally to adult mice at doses of 125 and 250 mg / kg body weight, produced an increase.in atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea. This effect may be due to an imbalance in the hormonal environment, as there may be an increase in the endogenous secretion of estrogen by the atretic follicles and to the estrogenicity of the extract.
- Antibacterial activity
The antibacterial activities of H. rosa-sinensis flower petals were carried out. Most of the extract shows an antibacterial activity against the human pathogens such as E. coli, B. subtillis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Streptococcus sp. Salmonella sp. All the extracts of flower have shown the activity. Investigations were carried out of plant materials as alternative sources of antibacterial agents. Thus the plant extracts can be used as an important antibiotic to cure above mentioned disorders caused by the different strains of bacteria. The present studies conclude these extract could inhibit human pathogens growth.
- Antiviral Activity
Ethanol [ 80 % ] extract of freeze-dried plant, in cell culture at variable concentrations, was equivocal on coxsackie B2 virus, measles virus and polio-virus I, and inactive on adenovirus, Herpes virus type I and semlickiforest virus vs plaque inhibition.
- Hypoglycemic Activity
Latest investigation using hibiscus is in area of benefits of hibiscus over treatment of diabetes. Various parts of hibiscus have shown potential results in reducing blood sugar and lipid levels. The alcoholic extract of leaf, administered orally to rats at a dose of 25o mg / kg daily for 7 days, showed significant improvements in the ability to utilize the external glucose load. Average blood glucose lowering was 39 %. In conclusion, hibiscus extracts exhibited hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities in diabetic rats, which suggested that hibiscus, might be used as therapeutic alternative in the treatment of diabetes associated dyslipidemia.
- Hair Growth Activity
Hibiscus rosasinensis flower is known as hair growth promoter in traditional and folklore medicines. Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. The extracts are effective in promoting hair growth activity. It may also effective to remove baldness problem.
Conclusion : rosasinensis possess many properties so this reason this plant may procure at large scale for providing herbal alternative to many diseases.